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REAS

Posted on January 12, 2016 at 9:45 AM


Renewable Energy, Environmental Engineering, Architectural and Civil Engineering, Sustainable Energy  Open at AJEAS

                                    Call for papers!

Starting from 2016 American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences publish one special issue on REAS (Renewable energy, Environmental engineering, Architectural and civil engineering, Sustainable energy)

  Description

This special issue is devoted to the integrated study of renewable, sustainable, environmental and architectural engineering (from earliest times to the present day) will be published to give researchers appreciation of where the discipline has come from. We aim to provide an advanced forum for studies related to the proposed fields with all topics below. The objective of this special issue is to present recent advances and emerging cross-disciplinary in the field of renewable, sustainable, environmental and architectural engineering. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. Environmental Engineering is the integration of sciences and engineering principles to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to clean up pollution sites. Environmental engineering can also be described as a branch of applied science and technology that addresses the issue of energy preservation, production asset and control of waste from human and animal activities. Furthermore, it is concerned with finding plausible solutions in the field of public health, such as waterborne diseases, implementing laws which promote adequate sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas. It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Sustainable energy is the form of energy obtained from non-exhaustible resources, such that the provision of this form of energy serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Articles discussing methodology and reviews of the current state of knowledge and possibilities for future research are especially welcome. Moreover, this issue will publish reviews and research articles. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. Full experimental and methodological details, as applicable, must be provided. The American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences is an open access peer reviewed technical journal which publishes original research contributions and is an unparalleled resource for key advances in the field of engineering. Scope of the journal includes but not limited to applied physics and applied mathematics, automation and control, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, data engineering and software engineering, earth and environmental engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and operations research, information technology and informatics, materials science, measurement and metrology, mechanical engineering, medical physics, power engineering, signal processing and telecommunications.
Manuscripts regarding original research proposals and research ideas would be highly appreciated. Manuscripts containing summaries and surveys on research cooperation and actual and future projects (as those founded by national governments or others) are likewise appreciated, as they provide interesting information for a broad field of users.

I n s t r u c t i o n s   f o r   A u t h o r s

S u b m i t   a n   A r t i c l e

J o u r n a l    T e m p l a t e

J o u r n a l    T e m p l a t e

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  1. Renewable Energy
  2. Sustainable Energy
  3. Energy Conservation
  4. Wind Power
  5. Hydropower
  6. Solar Energy
  7. Solar Farms
  8. Geothermal Energy
  9. Bio-energy
  10. Biomass
  11. Tidal Energy
  12. Heat Pump
  13. Smart-Grid technology
  14. Carbon-Neutral and Negative Fuels
  15. Hydrogen Energy
  16. Architectural and Civil Engineering
  17. Construction Engineering
  18. Environmental Engineering
  19. Earthquake Engineering
  20. Geotechnical Engineering
  21. Water Resources Engineering
  22. Transportation Engineering
  23. Coastal Engineering
  24. Glass Architecture

Guest Editors

Name Affilation
John Kaiser Calautit Researcher, University of Sheffield, UK
Laura Vanoli Associate Professor, University of Naples Parthenope, Italy
Alfonso Capozzoli Researcher, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Francesco Calise Associate Professsor, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Muftah H. El-Naas Professor, Qatar University, Qatar
Rafal Damian Figaj Researcher, University of Naples Parthenope, Italy
Fabrizio Ascione Researcher, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Anna Laura Pisello Assistant Professor, University of Perugia, Italy
Annamaria Buonomano Researcher, Uiversity of Naples Federico II, Italy
Maria Vicidomini Researcher, Uiversity of Naples Federico II, Italy
 

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Posted on January 6, 2016 at 5:10 PM


American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, an international journal publishes four times a year in print and electronic form. AJEAS is a peer reviewed technical journal publishes original research contributions and is an unparalleled resource for key advances in the field of engineering. Scope of the journal includes but not limited to applied physics and applied mathematics, automation and control, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, data engineering and software engineering, earth and environmental engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and operations research, information technology and informatics, materials science, measurement and metrology, mechanical engineering, medical physics, power engineering, signal processing and telecommunications. 
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences is a gold open access publication which means that all published manuscripts are feely available for unlimited access.
Open access publishing provides immediate, worldwide free access to all published manuscripts. Readers can view, download, print, and redistribute any article without any financial barrier, enabling greater distribution of an article.
Once published, the article will be made free to read and reuse upon publication under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence.


ISSN Print: 1941-7020
ISSN Online: 1941-7039

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Important indexations:
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J o u r n a l    T e m p l a t e

 
Science Publications group:


 

AJEAS

Posted on January 5, 2016 at 6:20 PM


American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 


American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, an international journal publishes four times a year in print and electronic form. AJEAS is a peer reviewed technical journal publishes original research contributions and is an unparalleled resource for key advances in the field of engineering. Scope of the journal includes but not limited to applied physics and applied mathematics, automation and control, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, data engineering and software engineering, earth and environmental engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and operations research, information technology and informatics, materials science, measurement and metrology, mechanical engineering, medical physics, power engineering, signal processing and telecommunications. 
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences is a gold open access publication which means that all published manuscripts are feely available for unlimited access.
Open access publishing provides immediate, worldwide free access to all published manuscripts. Readers can view, download, print, and redistribute any article without any financial barrier, enabling greater distribution of an article.
Once published, the article will be made free to read and reuse upon publication under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence.



ISSN Print: 1941-7020
ISSN Online: 1941-7039

American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Important indexations:
Scopus-Elsevier, Inspec-The IET-Web of Science Thomson Reuters (not ISI)Engineering Village-Elsevier, Communication Abstracts-CSA(Cambridge Scientific Abstracts), Global Science Citation Impact Factor, EBSCO,  Microsoft Academic Search, Pro Quest, Genamics Journal Seek, Open Library, DOAJ, ROAD, WorldCat, Index Copernicus, Thomson GALE, Pub Get, Academic Search Premier, ZB MED, Google Academic, Socolar, Sherpa Romeo, Ulrich, BASE, J-Gate.


A r c h i v e


O n l i n e   F i r s t


I n s t r u c t i o n s   f o r   A u t h o r s


O p e n   S p e c i a l   I s s u e s

 

S u b m i t   a n   A r t i c l e

 

J o u r n a l    T e m p l a t e

 

Northrop

Posted on September 8, 2012 at 11:45 AM

Northrop

The Northrop Grumman (formerly Ryan Aeronautical) RQ-4 Global Hawk (known as Tier II+ during development) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used by the United States Air Force and Navy and the German Air Force as a surveillance aircraft.

In role and operational design, the Global Hawk is similar to the Lockheed U-2, the venerable 1950s spy plane. It is a theater commander's asset to provide a broad overview and systematic target surveillance. For this purpose, the Global Hawk is able to provide high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) – that can penetrate cloud-cover and sandstorms – and electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) imagery at long range with long loiter times over target areas. It can survey as much as 40,000 square miles (103,600 square kilometers) of terrain a day.

It is used as a high-altitude platform for surveillance and security. Missions for the Global Hawk cover the spectrum of intelligence collection capability to support forces in worldwide military operations. According to the Air Force, the capabilities of the aircraft allow more precise targeting of weapons and better protection of forces through superior surveillance capabilities.

The Global Hawk costs about US$35 million to procure each aircraft. With development costs included, the unit cost rises to US$218 million.
The United States Navy took delivery of two of the Block 10 aircraft to be used to evaluate maritime surveillance capabilities, designated N-1 (BuNo 166509) and N-2 (BuNo 166510). The initial example was tested in a naval configuration at Edwards Air Force Base for several months, later ferrying to NAS Patuxent River on 28 March 2006 to begin the Global Hawk Maritime Demonstration (GHMD) program. Navy squadron VX-20 was tasked with operating the GHMD system.

The GHMD aircraft flew in the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise for the first time in July 2006. Although RIMPAC operations were in the vicinity of Hawaii, the aircraft was operated from Edwards, requiring flights of approximately 2,500 miles (4,000 km) each way to the operations area. Four flights were performed, resulting in over 24 hours of persistent maritime surveillance coordinated with USS Abraham Lincoln and USS Bonhomme Richard. As a part of the demonstration program, Global Hawk was tasked with maintenance of maritime situational awareness, contact tracking, and imagery support of various exercise operations. The imagery obtained by Global Hawk was transmitted to NAS Patuxent River for processing before being forwarded on to the fleet operations off Hawaii, thus exercising the global nature of this aircraft's operations.

Northrop Grumman entered a version of the RQ-4B in the US Navy's Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV contract competition. On 22 April 2008 the announcement was made that the Northrop Grumman RQ-4N had won the bid, with the Navy awarding a contract worth US$1.16 billion. In September 2010, the RQ-4N was officially designated the MQ-4C.

On 11 June 2012 a U.S. Navy RQ-4A Global Hawk crashed near Salisbury, Maryland, during a training flight from Naval Air Station Patuxent River.
Program development cost overruns had put the Global Hawk system at risk of cancellation. Per-unit costs in mid-2006 were 25% over baseline estimates, caused by both the need to correct design deficiencies as well as increase the system's capabilities. This caused some concerns about a possible congressional termination of the program if its national security benefits could not be justified. However, in June 2006, the Global Hawk program was restructured. Completion of an operational assessment report by the Air Force was delayed from August 2005 to November 2007 due to manufacturing and development delays. The operational assessment report was released in March 2007 and production of the 54 air vehicles planned has been extended by two years to 2015.

In February 2011, the Air Force reduced its planned buy of RQ-4 Block 40 aircraft from 22 to 11 in a cost-cutting move.

The U.S. Defense Department's Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) found the RQ-4B "not operationally effective" for its mission due to aircraft reliability issues in June 2011.

In June 2011, the Global Hawk was certified by the Secretary of Defense as critical to national security following a breach of the Nunn-McCurdy Amendment. The Secretary stated that: "The Global Hawk is essential to national security; there are no alternatives to Global Hawk which provide acceptable capability at less cost; Global Hawk costs $220M less per year than the U-2 to operate on a comparable mission; the U-2 cannot simultaneously carry the same sensors as the Global Hawk; and if funding must be reduced, Global Hawk has a higher priority over other programs."

On 26 January 2012, the Pentagon announced plans to end Global Hawk Block 30 procurement as the Block 30 was found to be more expensive to operate than the U-2, and its sensor suite was not as capable as the manned aircraft. Plans to increase the procurement of the Block 40 variant were also announced.
In December 2007, two Global Hawks were transferred from the U.S. Air Force to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base. Initial research activities beginning in the second quarter of 2009 supported NASA's high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. The three Global Hawks were the first, sixth and seventh aircraft built under the original DARPA Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program, and were made available to NASA when the Air Force had no further need for them. Northrop Grumman is an operational partner with NASA and will use the aircraft to demonstrate new technologies and to develop new markets for the aircraft, including possible civilian uses.

According to an article in the March 2010 issue of Scientific American (p. 25-27), the Global Hawk aircraft belonging to NASA were in use for testing purposes as of October 2009, with science missions expected to start in March 2010. Initial science applications included measurements of the ozone layer and cross-Pacific transport of air pollutants and aerosols. The author of the Scientific American piece speculates that the aircraft could be used for Antarctic exploration while based in and operated from Chile.

In August and September 2010 one of the two Global Hawks was loaned for NASA's GRIP Mission (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Program), with its long-term on station capabilities and long range it was the best aircraft for the mission to monitor the development of Atlantic basin Hurricanes. It was modified to equip weather sensors including Ku-Band Radar, Lightning sensors and Dropsondes. It successfully flew into Hurricane Earl off the United States East Coast on September 2.

The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) is the aerial warfare branch of the German Armed Forces. The term "Luftwaffe" is the name of both the former World War II-era Wehrmacht Luftwaffe and the post-World War II Bundeswehr Luftwaffe air forces.

The German Empire's World War I-era army air force, the Luftstreitkräfte, and naval air units were disbanded under the term of the Treaty of Versailles. After the defeat of the Third Reich the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. A new Bundeswehr Luftwaffe was founded in 1956 and remains as the German air force to the present day.

Luftwaffe is also the usual generic term in German speaking countries for any national military aviation service, and the names of air forces in other countries are usually translated into German as "Luftwaffe" (e.g. Royal Air Force is often translated as britische Luftwaffe). However, Luftstreitkräfte, or "air armed force", is also sometimes used as a translation of "air force", as first used in October 1916 for the German Empire's own Army-attched air service. And because Luft means "air" and Waffe may be translated into English as either "weapon" or "arm", "Air Arm" may be considered the most literal English translation of Luftwaffe (cf. Fleet Air Arm).

Nuclear Fusion

Posted on September 8, 2012 at 9:40 AM


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Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. Fusion is the process that powers active stars.

There are many experiments examining the possibility of fusion power for electrical generation. Nuclear fusion has great potential as a sustainable energy source. This is due to the abundance of hydrogen on the planet and the inert nature of helium (the nucleus which would result from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms). Unfortunately, a controlled nuclear fusion reaction has not yet been achieved, due to the temperatures required to sustain one.

Some fusion techniques can be employed in the design of atomic weaponry and although more generally, it is fission and not fusion, that is associated with the making of the atomic bomb. It is worth noting that fusion can also have a role to play in the design of the hydrogen bomb.

The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron (which, along with nickel, has the largest binding energy per nucleon) generally releases energy, while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy. The opposite is true for the reverse process, nuclear fission. This means that fusion generally occurs for lighter elements only, and likewise, that fission normally occurs only for heavier elements. There are extreme astrophysical events that can lead to short periods of fusion with heavier nuclei. This is the process that gives rise to nucleosynthesis, the creation of the heavy elements during events such as supernovae.

Creating the required conditions for fusion on Earth is very difficult, to the point that it has not been accomplished at any scale for protium, the common light isotope of hydrogen that undergoes natural fusion in stars. In nuclear weapons, some of the energy released by an atomic bomb (fission bomb) is used for compressing and heating a fusion fuel containing heavier isotopes of hydrogen, and also sometimes lithium, to the point of "ignition". At this point, the energy released in the fusion reactions is enough to briefly maintain the reaction. Fusion-based nuclear power experiments attempt to create similar conditions using far lesser means, although to date these experiments have failed to maintain conditions needed for ignition long enough for fusion to be a viable commercial power source.

Building upon the nuclear transmutation experiments by Ernest Rutherford, carried out several years earlier, the laboratory fusion of heavy hydrogen isotopes was first accomplished by Mark Oliphant in 1932. During the remainder of that decade the steps of the main cycle of nuclear fusion in stars were worked out by Hans Bethe. Research into fusion for military purposes began in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, but this was not accomplished until 1951 (see the Greenhouse Item nuclear test), and nuclear fusion on a large scale in an explosion was first carried out on November 1, 1952, in the Ivy Mike hydrogen bomb test.

Research into developing controlled thermonuclear fusion for civil purposes also began in earnest in the 1950s, and it continues to this day. Two projects, the National Ignition Facility and ITER are in the process of reaching breakeven after 60 years of design improvements developed from previous experiments.

The best results were obtained with the Tokamak-type installations (see the Figure below).

ITER: the world's largest Tokamak

ITER is based on the 'tokamak' concept of magnetic confinement, in which the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel. The fuel—a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen—is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma. Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls; these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel, and by an electrical current driven through the plasma.

The origin of the energy released in fusion of light elements is due to an interplay of two opposing forces, the nuclear force which draws together protons and neutrons, and the Coulomb force which causes protons to repel each other. The protons are positively charged and repel each other but they nonetheless stick together, portraying the existence of another force referred to as a nuclear attraction. The strong nuclear force, that overcomes electric repulsion in a very close range. The effect of this force is not observed outside the nucleus. Hence the force has a strong dependence on distance making it a short range force. The same force also pulls the neutrons together, or neutrons and protons together. Because the nuclear force is stronger than the Coulomb force for atomic nuclei smaller than iron and nickel, building up these nuclei from lighter nuclei by fusion releases the extra energy from the net attraction of these particles. For larger nuclei, however, no energy is released, since the nuclear force is short-range and cannot continue to act across still larger atomic nuclei. Thus, energy is no longer released when such nuclei are made by fusion (instead, energy is absorbed in such processes).

Fusion reactions of light elements power the stars and produce virtually all elements in a process called nucleosynthesis. The fusion of lighter elements in stars releases energy (and the mass that always accompanies it). For example, in the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei to form helium, seven-tenths of 1 percent of the mass is carried away from the system in the form of kinetic energy or other forms of energy (such as electromagnetic radiation). However, the production of elements heavier than iron absorbs energy.

Research into controlled fusion, with the aim of producing fusion power for the production of electricity, has been conducted for over 60 years. It has been accompanied by extreme scientific and technological difficulties, but has resulted in progress. At present, controlled fusion reactions have been unable to produce break-even (self-sustaining) controlled fusion reactions. Workable designs for a reactor that theoretically will deliver ten times more fusion energy than the amount needed to heat up plasma to required temperatures (see ITER) were originally scheduled to be operational in 2018, however this has been delayed and a new date has not been stated.

It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of the lightest element, hydrogen. This is because all nuclei have a positive charge (due to their protons), and as like charges repel, nuclei strongly resist being put too close together. Accelerated to high speeds (that is, heated to thermonuclear temperatures), they can overcome this electrostatic repulsion and get close enough for the attractive nuclear force to be sufficiently strong to achieve fusion. The fusion of lighter nuclei, which creates a heavier nucleus and often a free neutron or proton, generally releases more energy than it takes to force the nuclei together; this is an exothermic process that can produce self-sustaining reactions. The US National Ignition Facility, which uses laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, is thought to be capable of break-even fusion.

Energy released in most nuclear reactions is much larger than in chemical reactions, because the binding energy that holds a nucleus together is far greater than the energy that holds electrons to a nucleus. For example, the ionization energy gained by adding an electron to a hydrogen nucleus is 13.6 eV—less than one-millionth of the 17 MeV released in the deuterium–tritium (D–T) reaction shown in the diagram to the right. Fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission; the reactions produce far greater energies per unit of mass even though individual fission reactions are generally much more energetic than individual fusion ones, which are themselves millions of times more energetic than chemical reactions. Only direct conversion of mass into energy, such as that caused by the annihilation collision of matter and antimatter, is more energetic per unit of mass than nuclear fusion.

A substantial energy barrier of electrostatic forces must be overcome before fusion can occur. At large distances two naked nuclei repel one another because of the repulsive electrostatic force between their positively charged protons. If two nuclei can be brought close enough together, however, the electrostatic repulsion can be overcome by the attractive nuclear force, which is stronger at close distances.

When a nucleon such as a proton or neutron is added to a nucleus, the nuclear force attracts it to other nucleons, but primarily to its immediate neighbours due to the short range of the force. The nucleons in the interior of a nucleus have more neighboring nucleons than those on the surface. Since smaller nuclei have a larger surface area-to-volume ratio, the binding energy per nucleon due to the nuclear force generally increases with the size of the nucleus but approaches a limiting value corresponding to that of a nucleus with a diameter of about four nucleons. It is important to keep in mind that the above picture is a toy model because nucleons are quantum objects, and so, for example, since two neutrons in a nucleus are identical to each other, distinguishing one from the other, such as which one is in the interior and which is on the surface, is in fact meaningless, and the inclusion of quantum mechanics is necessary for proper calculations.

The electrostatic force, on the other hand, is an inverse-square force, so a proton added to a nucleus will feel an electrostatic repulsion from all the other protons in the nucleus. The electrostatic energy per nucleon due to the electrostatic force thus increases without limit as nuclei get larger.

H-hour

 

With the help of powerful lasers one can create a dense and highly ionized plasma. We need a highly ionized dense plasma to achieve nuclear fusion (cold or hot).

Since 1989, it talks about achieving nuclear fusion hot and cold. Another two decades have passed and humanity still does not benefit from nuclear fusion energy. What actually happens? Is it an unattainable myth? It was also circulated by the media that has been achieved nuclear fusion heat. Since 1989 there are all sorts of scientists with all kinds of crafted devices, which declare that they can produce nuclear power obtained by cold fusion (using cold plasma). May be that these devices works, but their yield is probably too small, or at an enlarged scale these give not the expected results. This is the real reason why we can't use yet the survival fuel (the deuterium).

Unfortunately today the dominant processes that produce energy are combustion (reaction) chemical combination of carbon with oxygen. Thermal energy released from such reactions is conventionally valued at about 7000 calories per gram.

Only the early 20th century physicists have succeeded in producing, other energy than by traditional methods. Energy release per unit mass was enormous compared with that obtained by conventional procedures. The Kilowatt based on nuclear fission of uranium nuclei has today a significant share in global energy balance. Unfortunately, the nuclear power plants burn the fuel uranium, already considered conventional and on extinct.

The current nuclear power is considered a transition way, to the energy thermonuclear, based on fusion of light nuclei.

The main particularity of synthesis reaction (fusion) is the high prevalence of the used fuel (primary), deuterium. It can be obtained relatively simply from ordinary water.

Deuterium was extracted from water for the first time by Harold Urey in 1931. Even at that time, small linear electrostatic accelerators, have indicated that D-D reaction (fusion of two deuterium nuclei) is exothermic.

Today we know that not only the first isotope of hydrogen (deuterium) produces fusion energy, but and the second (heavy) isotope of hydrogen (tritium) can produce energy by nuclear fusion.

The first reaction is possible between two nuclei of deuterium, from which can be obtained, either a tritium nucleus plus a proton and energy, or an isotope of helium with a neutron and energy.

Observations: a deuterium nucleus has a proton and a neutron; a tritium nucleus has a proton and two neutrons.

Fusion can occur between a nucleus of deuterium and one of tritium.

Another fusion reaction can be produced between a nucleus of deuterium and an isotope of helium.

For these reactions to occur, should that the deuterium nuclei have enough kinetic energy to overcome the electrostatic forces of rejection due to the positive tasks of protons in the nuclei.

For deuterium, for average kinetic energy are required tens of keV.

For 1 keV are needed about 10 million degrees temperature. For this reason hot fusion requires a temperature of hundreds of millions of degrees.

The huge temperature is done with high power lasers acting hot plasma.

Electromagnetic fields are arranged so that it can maintain hot plasma.

The best results were obtained with the Tokamak-type installations.

ITER: the world's largest Tokamak

ITER is based on the 'tokamak' concept of magnetic confinement, in which the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel. The fuel—a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen—is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma. Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls; these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel, and by an electrical current driven through the plasma.

Deuterium fuel is delivered in heavy water, D2O.

Tritium is obtained in the laboratory by the following reaction.

Lithium, the third element in Mendeleev's table, is found in nature in sufficient quantities.

The accelerated neutrons which produce the last presented reaction with lithium, appear from the second and the third presented reaction.

Raw materials for fusion are deuterium and lithium.

All fusion reactions shown produce finally energy and He. He is a (gas) inert element. Because of this, fusion reaction is clean, and far superior to nuclear fission.

Hot fusion works with very high temperatures.

In cold fusion, it must accelerate the deuterium nucleus, in linear or circular accelerators. Final energy of accelerated deuterium nuclei should be well calibrated for a positive final yield of fusion reactions (more mergers, than fission).

Electromagnetic fields which maintain the plasma (cold and especially the warm), should be and constrictors (especially at cold fusion), for to press, and more close together the nuclei.

The potential energy with that two protons reject each other, be calculated with the following relationship.

At a keV is necessary a temperature of 10 million 0C.

At 360 keV is necessary a temperature of 3600 million 0C.

In hot fusion it need a temperature of 3600 million degrees.

Without a minimum of 3000 million degrees we can't make the hot fusion reaction, to obtain the nuclear power.

Today we have just 150 million degrees made.

To replace the lack of necessary temperature, it uses various tricks.

In cold fusion one must accelerate the deuterium nuclei at an energy of 360 [keV], and then collide them with the cold fusion fuel (heavy water and lithium).



Cold Nuclear Fusion

 

Because obtaining the necessary huge temperature for hot fusion is still difficult, it is time to focus us on cold nuclear fusion.

We need to bomb the fuel with accelerated deuterium nuclei.

The fuel will be made ​​from heavy water and lithium.

The optimal proportion of lithium will be tested.

It would be preferable to keep fuel in the plasma state.

 

Much success!

The Author

 

Bibliography

^ "Progress in Fusion". ITER. Retrieved 2010-02-15.

^ "The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a New Age for Science". National Ignition Facility. Retrieved 2009-09-13.

^ "DOE looks again at inertial fusion as potential clean-energy source", David Kramer, Physics Today, March 2011, p 26

^ The Most Tightly Bound Nuclei. Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.

^ F. Winterberg "Conjectured Metastable Super-Explosives formed under High Pressure for Thermonuclear Ignition"

^ Zhang, Fan; Murray, Stephen Burke; Higgins, Andrew (2005) "Super compressed detonation method and device to effect such detonation[dead link]"

^ I.I. Glass and J.C. Poinssot "IMPLOSION DRIVEN SHOCK TUBE". NASA

^ D.Sagie and I.I. Glass (1982) "Explosive-driven hemispherical implosions for generating fusion plasmas"

^ T. Saito, A. K. Kudian and I. I. Glass "Temperature Measurements Of An Implosion Focus"

^ S.E. Jones (1986). "Muon-Catalysed Fusion Revisited". Nature 321 (6066): 127–133. Bibcode 1986Natur.321..127J. DOI:10.1038/321127a0.

^ Access: Desktop fusion is back on the table: Nature News. Nature.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.

^ Supplementary methods for “Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal”. Main article Naranjo, B.; Gimzewski, J.K.; Putterman, S. (2005). "Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal". Nature 434 (7037): 1115–1117. Bibcode 2005Natur.434.1115N. DOI:10.1038/nature03575. PMID 15858570.

^ UCLA Crystal Fusion. Rodan.physics.ucla.edu. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.

^ Phil Schewe and Ben Stein (2005). "Pyrofusion: A Room-Temperature, Palm-Sized Nuclear

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MSSMM

Posted on September 6, 2012 at 6:15 AM


MSSMM

MSSMM este un Masterat tehnic postuniversitar (120 puncte credit), acreditat si recunoscut international, in domeniul Inginerie Industriala, sustinut de catedra TMR, din Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti. MODELAREA SI SIMULAREA SISTEMELOR MECANICE MOBILE pregateste cursantii in domeniul tehnic al Mecatronicii si Roboticii Industriale. El se adreseaza in egala masura licentiatilor in Inginerie Industriala, mecanica, tehnica, informaticienilor, matematicienilor, fizicienilor, ciberneticienilor, etc.

 http://www.hobbing.com/picts/CADWORK1.gif

 

 

 

 

 

MASTERATE TEHNICE Europene acreditate international (120 puncte de credit fiecare), in colaborare cu mai multe universitati europene, cu pregatire industriala si economica, in domeniile Inginerie Industriala si Inginerie si Management:

Relaţii suplimentare la secretariatul catedrei TMR (ARoTMM IFToMM) Splaiul Independentei 313, Cladirea Transporturi (Sala JC 102),

Telefon: 0214029632, e-mail: catedramecanisme[email protected]


MSSMM-MASTER IN DOMENIUL INGINERIE INDUSTRIALA,

CPSM-MASTER IN DOMENIUL INGINERIE SI MANAGEMENT.



Candidatii admisi la master pot beneficia de burse de studiu
pe durate de 3, 4, 6, 12 luni la universitatile partenere din Europa.


UNIVERSITĂŢI PARTENERE:

· Technische Universitat Braunschweig-Germania

· Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology-Ireland

· Instituto Politecnico do Porto- Portugal

· Linkoping Universitet – Sweden

· University of Cassino – Italy

· University of Bilbao – Spain




 
 
 
 
 
Free Domain Name
 
 
 
 
 
Image:Nockenwelle ani.gif    
File:F4-motion.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/28/p.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/27/p.gif
http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/7/p.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/11/p.gif http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/obw1Xs.gif
File:Triple expansion engine animation.gif File:Uniflow steam engine.gif File:Qt-Flash-Final.gif
File:Newcomen atmospheric engine animation.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Cshaft.gif Image:Induction-motor-3a.gif
http://www.deyes.sefton.sch.uk/Technology/images/Ks3/Mechanisms/PULLEY.gif http://www.deyes.sefton.sch.uk/Technology/images/Ks3/Mechanisms/REV-PUL.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Chain.gif

http://www.buzzhunt.co.uk/wp-content/2009/06/Manual-transmission-mechanism.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Simple_harmonic_oscillator.gif
Imagine:Geneva mechanism 6spoke animation.gif

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Internal_Geneva_wheel_ani.gif

Image:Gerotor anm.gif
Image:Sarrus linkage anim 360x400.gif
Sarrus Linkage
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Hexapod_general_Anim.gif
Datei:Newtons cradle animation book.gif Datei:Kurvenantrieb mit Zylinderkurve.gif
     
     
     
     
     

WHO ARE US?


1-WE WERE T M M (MECHANISMS AND MACHINES THEORY), AND NOW WE ARE T M R (MECHANISMS AND ROBOTS THEORY) CHAIR,
2-WE ARE THE FOUNDER OF A R o T M M (ROMANIAN ASSOCIATION ON MACHINES AND MECHANISMS THEORY),
3-WE ARE ONE OF THE 13 FOUNDERS OF IFToMM (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MACHINES AND MECHANISMS THEORY),
4-WE ARE THE FOUNDER OF A R R (ROMANIAN ROBOTICS ASSOCIATION), TODAY S R R (ROMANIAN ROBOTICS SOCIETY)

MSSMM

Posted on September 6, 2012 at 6:15 AM


MSSMM

MSSMM este un Masterat tehnic postuniversitar (120 puncte credit), acreditat si recunoscut international, in domeniul Inginerie Industriala, sustinut de catedra TMR, din Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti. MODELAREA SI SIMULAREA SISTEMELOR MECANICE MOBILE pregateste cursantii in domeniul tehnic al Mecatronicii si Roboticii Industriale. El se adreseaza in egala masura licentiatilor in Inginerie Industriala, mecanica, tehnica, informaticienilor, matematicienilor, fizicienilor, ciberneticienilor, etc.

 http://www.hobbing.com/picts/CADWORK1.gif

 

 

 

 

 

MASTERATE TEHNICE Europene acreditate international (120 puncte de credit fiecare), in colaborare cu mai multe universitati europene, cu pregatire industriala si economica, in domeniile Inginerie Industriala si Inginerie si Management:

Relaţii suplimentare la secretariatul catedrei TMR (ARoTMM IFToMM) Splaiul Independentei 313, Cladirea Transporturi (Sala JC 102),

Telefon: 0214029632, e-mail: catedramecanisme[email protected]


MSSMM-MASTER IN DOMENIUL INGINERIE INDUSTRIALA,

CPSM-MASTER IN DOMENIUL INGINERIE SI MANAGEMENT.



Candidatii admisi la master pot beneficia de burse de studiu
pe durate de 3, 4, 6, 12 luni la universitatile partenere din Europa.


UNIVERSITĂŢI PARTENERE:

· Technische Universitat Braunschweig-Germania

· Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology-Ireland

· Instituto Politecnico do Porto- Portugal

· Linkoping Universitet – Sweden

· University of Cassino – Italy

· University of Bilbao – Spain




 
 
 
 
 
Free Domain Name
 
 
 
 
 
Image:Nockenwelle ani.gif    
File:F4-motion.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/28/p.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/27/p.gif
http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/7/p.gif http://www.dtonline.org/areas/6/1/11/p.gif http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/obw1Xs.gif
File:Triple expansion engine animation.gif File:Uniflow steam engine.gif File:Qt-Flash-Final.gif
File:Newcomen atmospheric engine animation.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Cshaft.gif Image:Induction-motor-3a.gif
http://www.deyes.sefton.sch.uk/Technology/images/Ks3/Mechanisms/PULLEY.gif http://www.deyes.sefton.sch.uk/Technology/images/Ks3/Mechanisms/REV-PUL.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Chain.gif

http://www.buzzhunt.co.uk/wp-content/2009/06/Manual-transmission-mechanism.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Simple_harmonic_oscillator.gif
Imagine:Geneva mechanism 6spoke animation.gif

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Internal_Geneva_wheel_ani.gif

Image:Gerotor anm.gif
Image:Sarrus linkage anim 360x400.gif
Sarrus Linkage
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Hexapod_general_Anim.gif
Datei:Newtons cradle animation book.gif Datei:Kurvenantrieb mit Zylinderkurve.gif
     
     
     
     
     

WHO ARE US?


1-WE WERE T M M (MECHANISMS AND MACHINES THEORY), AND NOW WE ARE T M R (MECHANISMS AND ROBOTS THEORY) CHAIR,
2-WE ARE THE FOUNDER OF A R o T M M (ROMANIAN ASSOCIATION ON MACHINES AND MECHANISMS THEORY),
3-WE ARE ONE OF THE 13 FOUNDERS OF IFToMM (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR MACHINES AND MECHANISMS THEORY),
4-WE ARE THE FOUNDER OF A R R (ROMANIAN ROBOTICS ASSOCIATION), TODAY S R R (ROMANIAN ROBOTICS SOCIETY)


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